Paris Agreement and the incoming US administration
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Paris Agreement and the incoming US administration

  Paris Agreement and the incoming US administration By Aya Kathir and Houmi Ahamed-Mikidache All around the world, people, politicians and leaders are talking about the “changing American political landscape”. Donald Trump the president elect has yet  to decide his environmental agenda regarding the climate change and the fossil fuel which could cripple a decade of climate diplomacy. Barack Obama’s Clean Power Strategy could fail after Donald Trump’s decision to remove the US from the Framework Convention on Climate Change and remove his Nation from the Paris Agreement. How Climate Change is affecting the US? There are public health threats associated with the extreme weather including the heat stress, air pollution and diseases carried by food, water and insects. Climate Change has come at a cost to the US. Disasters in 2012 cost the American Economy more than $100 billion with drought, heatwave, western wildfires, super storm Sandy and hurricane ISAAC. What is the Clean Power Plan about? The Clean Power Plan aims to  reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 32 percent from 2005 levels by 2030. It should prevent up to 3,600 premature deaths, 1,700 non-fatal heart attacks, 90,000 asthma attacks in children, 300,000 missed workdays and schooldays. According to the current US administration, the Clean Power Plan should boost the US economy by leading to 30 percent more renewable energy generation in  2030, creating tens of thousands of jobs and continuing to lower the costs of renewable energy. President Obama renewable energy policy calls to keep global warming below 2 degree Celsius. On August 3, 2015, Mr Obama announced “the clean power plan”,  a turning point and an important step in reducing carbon pollution. By announcing a clean power plan, the US is committed to lead global efforts to address Climate Change. The Clean Power Plan was first proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency in June 2014, under the administration of the President Obama. Its final version set a national limit on Carbon pollution.  US Investment From 2010-2015, the US has invested more than $11 billion in International clean energy finance, while in 2016,  Mr Trump as a candidate  announced that investing in  Climate Change wasn’t worth it:  it was waste of money he said. But on November 17, 2016, “more than 360 businesses and investors sent a strong message to the US headers; reaffirming their support for the historic Paris Climate Agreement. They were calling the US administration to strongly support the continuation of low-carbon policies and the commitment of the US in the Paris Agreement. Financing developing countries: a priority While the current US administration announced statistics and numbers to continue the global transition to zero- and-low...

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What is next after the US election 2016?
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What is next after the US election 2016?

What is next after the US election 2016?   By Aya Kathir Column Trump and the Paris agreement: As the climate change and global warming become day after day a really great risk to people lives, it becomes the big issue of the post US election 2016.  Donald Trump, as he mentioned in his speeches and the debates during election,  doesn’t seem to believe in the climate change as an environmental issue or even as a real scientific evidence. The president elected mentioned during campaign that investing in the climate change field is  a waste of the U.S financial resources, and that the financial growth should be addressed to ensure the access of the clean water which by its role while guarantee the elimination of aliments like the malaria, and also to seek for alternative energy sources. But the reality is… Over the past several years, the western and southern states  have suffered from the worst droughts.  In the US history,  California for instance  grabs the attention on crops and the water issues. But Mr Trump says that the clean water will be one of “the most important issue that will face the next generation” During the first week of negotiations of the COP 22, the 22nd Conference of Parties in Morocco, questions were raised , about Trump’s situation via the Paris agreement and his intention to pull out the US of the Paris agreement, which will strongly affect the international efforts to limit the global warming. The US had pledged to $3billion to the UN Green Climate Fund which will give the financial support to the developing countries helping them to face the climate change. Stressing on the fact that, despite the elections’ results, fighting the climate change will strongly remain the first priority of the international community. According to observers, withdrawing the US, the world’s largest greenhouse polluter after China, from the Paris agreement will block other countries from fulfilling the agreement’s commitment and it will be considered as a step back from a process that already took years and years. The Paris agreement’s goal is to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions so that the atmosphere warming will drop down to at least 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit to protect the whole planet form a real extreme dangerous warming. Washington has already ratified the Paris agreement, the US is bound by the agreement to remain part of it for at least three years. After the three years, if really the US decides to cancel it, it must wait another year before it can formally leave. The Middle East through the election In the Middle East and North Africa with...

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COP22- Paris agreement and Human Rights
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COP22- Paris agreement and Human Rights

COP 22-Paris agreement and Human Rights   After the Kyoto Protocol which was not respected by most of the countries, Paris Agreement should be the world’s biggest upswing in Climate change policy. But will it be easy for Human Rights to be at the forefront of the talks in Marrakesh?   By Aya Kathir   The Agreement Paris agreement is a critical turning point toward a zero-carbon and resilient world according to the French presidency of the COP 21, the  UN Climate Change  summit held last December in Paris . The next UN Climate Change conference will be a space of  action, said the Morrocan presidency. After the Kyoto Protocol which was not respected by most of the countries, Paris Agreement should be the world’s biggest upswing in Climate change policy. This agreement was adopted in Paris during the  21 UN Conference on climate change. On 22 April 2016, the text was opened for signature. It was during the Earth Day in New York city. Early August 2016, 180 members of the United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change (UNFCCC) have signed it.  Now,  around 23 States have  deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval accounting in total for 1.08 % of the total global greenhouse gas emissions, describes  the UNFCCC website. So, it is only representing  around 1.08 % of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. It’s not a working base. But certainly, Paris Agreement was  a “historic turning point” as it was mentioned by Laurent Fabius, the Head of Paris Conference and France’s foreign minister. This agreement aims to reduce the global warming by controlling the Co2 emissions and diminishes greenhouse gas, as it was described in details in Article 2 of the UN Climate Change Convention. It sets ambitious goal: ” to increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°c pre- industrial levels”.   Criticism The agreement  was praised by the French President François Hollande , with the UN secretary general Ban Ki – Moon, and the Climate Change UN Executive  Secretary at  that time, Christina Figueres. Although,  it was surrounded by criticism. “The agreement is all about “promises” and we don’t see its impact in real life”, said James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and Climate change expert. Specially after the limited participation in the Kyoto Protocol and the lack of agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. But   the Kyoto Protocol did not include a single reference to  the rights of indigenous people and ecosystem integrity. As opposed to the Kyoto Protocol, Human Rights  are include in the Paris Agreement,  not in the body of the text, but it is  included  in the...

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26th AU Summit: Seeking for women rights in 21st century
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26th AU Summit: Seeking for women rights in 21st century

26th AU Summit: Seeking for women rights in 21st century By Aya Kathir Women in general  around the world are seeking for their rights . Women especially  in Egypt are facing many challenges. Despite all of these, they are trying to be fully engaged in the public life and many of them succeeded already to grave their names in many fields. Analysis.     Women’s battle   Throughout ages, History has been the witness of many women around the world who have been trying to break the rules in societies that were been controlled by men. They were seeking to prove themselves, by raising their voices and by seeking to reach their rights in playing a role in the community. According to Egypt’s vision 2030, women can be empowering socially, politically and economically. But women in Egypt are facing many challenges. Women are facing obviously an unprecedented phenomena of sexual harassment. According to 2013 UN Women report, nearly 99.3% of women have been sexually harassed. This problem has nothing to do with clothing, but it’s a stolen right of practicing their freedom. Just the fact of being a woman in a patriarchal society opens the door to be underestimated and neglected.   The United Nations in Egypt and the Egyptian government are combining their efforts to ensure the women’s freedom and safety by supporting the legislative changes and executing the laws which are considered as first steps to face this epidemic. The UNICEF reported that 91% of women and girls had undergone female genital mutilation, which has been criminalized in Egypt in 2008. It’s the evidence of the significant increase in the women’s health care in the last centuries. Women are facing sex segregation in the work place, which limits their ability to work and to maintain a higher position. There is also a   gender segregation at school , especially in Upper- class with the  withdrawal of girls from attending school when they reached the puberty. Many civil societies are facing the high illiteracy rates among women. Many organizations and feminism groups are  protecting women’s right, with the  gender equality  willing.  One of them is  the Egyptian Center for women’s rights (ECWR), for instance. Headed by Nihad Abu Al Qumsan, this  non-governmental, non-profit organization has the mission to bring equality among men and women. Another one is the Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW). It  was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 18, 1979. This convention seeks to define discrimination against women as a human right issue.  189 countries have signed this convention. Gamal Abdul Nasser’s legacy The president Gamal...

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COP 22- Egypte : L’ère  du charbon
Juin10

COP 22- Egypte : L’ère du charbon

COP 22-Egypte : L’ère du charbon Par Aya Kathir Face à la chute des prix du gaz et du pétrole, l’Egypte a finalement opté pour l’utilisation du charbon comme alternative au gaz naturel. Après plusieurs mois de polémiques, le gouvernement égyptien a cédé à la tentation. Analyse Tout avait pourtant bien commencé. Mars 2015. Charm El Cheikh. L’Egypte organise une conférence internationale sur le développement du pays. Pendant trois jours. Plus de 2000 personnes assistent au sommet. Objectif : encourager les investisseurs à réaliser des projets dans ce pays, il y a peu, connu pour son tourisme florissant. Mais le contexte n’est pas facile : tribulations politiques, terrorisme…Sous le Haut patronage du président égyptien Abdel Fatah Al Sissi, cette conférence fait l’objet de présentations d’importants projets. Un exemple: la transformation de la biomasse en énergie. Stratégie de développement Depuis le mois de février dernier, l’Egypte se dote r d’une vision de développement durable. Sa stratégie :   la vision 2030. La santé, l’environnement et l’Energie font partie des secteurs décrits. Dans le domaine de la santé, l’Egypte souhaite mettre en place un système sanitaire intégral de meilleur qualité, réduire de 50% le taux de naissance et le taux de mortalité des enfants de moins 5 ans, réduire la mortalité maternelle, permettre l’accès à 80% aux services de base de la santé et assurer la couverture à 100% pour tous les types de vaccination. Dans le secteur de l’ environnement l’Egypte veut sensibiliser la population sur la protection de la nature et la réduction des effets des changements climatiques. Ses mesures : arrêter la détérioration de l’environnement, maintenir l’équilibre de l’environnement, utiliser d’autres modes de consommation, protéger la biodiversité, gérer les déchets, respecter les engagements internationaux. L’acccord de Paris personnalise les engagement du pays. Le texte de Paris répond en partie à la demande des pays en développement en terme d’actions liées aux mesures d’adaptation et d’atténuation présentées dans les plans d’action nationaux. Mais la question du financement reste à résoudre.La prochaine conférence des Nations Unies à Marrakech aura pour ambition d’y répondre. Les défis L’Egypte est considérée comme le deuxième plus gros consommateur d’électricité du continent Africain, couplé par  une démographie galopante. Avec une population de 10 millions d’habitants, l’Egypte doit aussi faire face à une insécurité alimentaire, notamment dans la région de Quena, Assuit, Sohag et Luxor, d’après le récent rapport sur les perspectives de développement publié conjointement par la BAD et l’OCDE. « À mesure que les demandeurs d’emploi migrent vers les zones urbaines, la population des villes augmente, ajoutant aux pressions qui pèsent déjà sur l’infrastructure urbaine, » explique les auteurs du rapport. Et d’ajouter : «  Pour remédier à ce problème, l’État a...

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