COP 28: Release of the synthesis report for the UN Global Stocktake
The synthesis report of the technical dialogue published on Friday summarises 17 key technical conclusions from the discussions on the Global Stocktake. Introduced in the Paris Agreement, the Global Stocktake must be presented every 5 years. It will be discussed during COP28.
By Houmi Ahamed-Mikidache
The synthesis report of the technical dialogue published on Friday summarises 17 key technical conclusions from the discussions on the Global Stocktake. Introduced in the Paris Agreement, the Global Stocktake must be presented every 5 years. It will be the focus of discussions at the 28th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP28) in the United Arab Emirates from 30 November to 12 December. The COP28 summit in Dubai, UAE, will focus on how countries are building on the findings of the Global Stocktaking Report. A global assessment whose objective is to limit the rise in temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius and face the impacts of climate change.
For the intensification of renewable energies
According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, today’s synthesis report makes it clear that there is progress, but much more needs to be done. Although there are well-known gaps, the technical findings have highlighted existing and emerging opportunities. For the Director of the European Climate Foundation, Laurence Tubiana, former head of the French delegation to COP 21, architect of the Paris Agreement, the global assessment is important compared to other documents, because it involves the responsibility of governments. “States have an obligation to submit a new contribution by 2030 and it must be more ambitious than previous ones,” she said at an explanation meeting on the release of the synthesis report on Friday.
One of the elements presented in the report is the recommendation on scaling up renewable energy and phasing out all fossil fuels. These data are essential for a just energy transition towards carbon neutrality (Art. 116, page 20). Achieving carbon neutrality is described as a concept to balance greenhouse gas emissions and removals.
“There are a few positives worth celebrating, such as the rapid adoption of renewable energy and electric vehicles in recent years. Many countries have embraced carbon neutrality and adopted important climate laws,’ said Ani Dasgupta, President and CEO, World Resources Institute, a global research organisation. ‘But overall, the report finds that there are more gaps than progress, gaps that can only be addressed through transformational change between systems like energy, food, land and transport,’ he continued.
The COP 28 presidency, criticised by civil society for its massive use of fossil fuels, agrees with the report’s conclusions and calls for action. We must act with «ambition and urgency» to reduce emissions by 43% by 2030: the COP28 presidency presented an ambitious action programme focused on accelerating a just and well-managed energy transition that leaves no one behind, Fixing climate finance, with a focus on people’s lives and livelihoods, and all underlying with full inclusion,” said Sultan Al Jaber, President of COP 28.
For Ani Sasgupta, at COP 28, world leaders must present a plan that includes rapid action to move from fossil fuels to renewables. He also launched another appeal. Rich countries need to provide much more funding to help developing countries transition to a better economy, one that lifts people out of poverty and allows people to withstand floods and droughts, while protecting nature and significantly reducing emissions,’ he stresses.
“A solid scientific and technical basis”
The global stocktake began with a data collection phase in 2021, collecting a wide range of contributions from Parties, international bodies and non-Party stakeholders. “It is necessary that “Governments, businesses, Communities and other key stakeholders are carefully considering the findings of the report include the challenges and ambitious measures to be implemented,” said Simon Stiel, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the drafting of this report, a technical dialogue was conducted through three meetings in 2022 and 2023 and was chaired, with the assistance of the UN Secretariat on Climate Change, by two co-facilitators, Farhan Akhtar and Harald Winkler, appointed by developed and developing countries respectively. An equity process presented by the United Nations since the beginning of the negotiations. The technical discussion covered many topics, including mitigation, adaptation and support, and loss and damage and response. Ambition and equity were at the heart of all these topics, all based on available and reliable scientific data.
“The technical dialogues were based on the best available science, building on the latest findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other sources of knowledge, with a broad participation of experts and non-Parties stakeholders from diverse backgrounds,’ notes Farhan Akhtar. This synthesis report should serve as a sound scientific and technical basis for concluding the first global stocktake in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, at the UN Climate Change Conference COP28.
“More than 137 non-party stakeholders submitted comments on their actions and support for the objectives of the Paris Agreement, a total of more than 170,000 pages of written submissions were received, and we had over 252 hours of meetings and discussions during the three technical dialogue meetings – plenary, roundtable and global coffee. As the technical findings of the report show, much more is needed now, on all fronts and by all actors, to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement,” says Harald Winkler, the other co-facilitator of the study.
While climate change threatens all countries, the study shows that adaptation and prevention measures must intensify. Reducing loss and damage is necessary especially for people vulnerable to disasters (key point 9, page 25). The Global Stocktake is held every five years and is intended to inform the next set of nationally determined contributions to be submitted by 2030.