UNFCCC: In Preparation for COP 25
Juin02

UNFCCC: In Preparation for COP 25

UNFCCC: In Preparation for COP 25   By ERA ENVIRONNEMENT with UNFCCC The 50th session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 50) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 50) will be held in Bonn,  Germany, from 17-27 June 2019, in preparation for COP 25. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice is one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the Convention established by the Conference of the Parties /Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris.  It supports the work of these bodies through the provision of timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the UNFCC, its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreeement. Vulnerability and Adaptation among the discussion This year, the technical  discussion will be about vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change, science and review with research and observation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C. Also up for discussion are methodological issues under the Convention, including a training programme for review experts for the technical review of greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories of Annex I Parties* to the Convention (developed countries). Under methodological issues under the Kyoto Protocol, SBSTA 50 will address: land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); and implications of including reforestation of lands with forest in exhaustion as afforestation and reforestation clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities. Keys to achieve NDCs Regarding methodological issues under the Paris Agreement, SBSTA 50 has on its agenda issues related to, inter alia, reporting of information: on anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of GHGs; to track progress made in implementing and achieving Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); and on financial, technology development and transfer and capacity-building support. On matters relating to Article 6 (cooperative approaches) of the Paris Agreement, the SBSTA will address: guidance on cooperative approaches; rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism established by Article 6; and the work programme under the framework for non-market approaches. The SBSTA will also discuss market and non-market mechanisms under the Convention, including a framework for various approaches, non-market-based approaches, and a new market-based mechanism. SBI 50 will include: a multilateral assessment working group session under the international assessment and review (IAR) process; and a facilitative sharing of views under the international consultation and analysis (ICA) process. How the SBI will work? The SBI will address issues related to reporting from and review of Annex I Parties, including, inter alia: status of submission and review of seventh national communications and third BRs; compilations and syntheses of second and third BRs; the report on national GHG inventory...

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Journée internationale de la biodiversité
Mai23

Journée internationale de la biodiversité

Journée internationale de la biodiversité    Par Era Environnement Alimentation, Agriculture et Forêts  La journée internationale de la biodiversité est célébrée tous les ans le 22 mai. Mais que  représente cette journée  dans le monde? Des données  issues du récent rapport  de la Plateforme intergouvernementale scientifique et politique sur la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques (IPBES) rappellent  les différentes problématiques liées à l’alimentation, l’agriculture et les forêts dans le monde. 75 % de l’environnement terrestre ont déjà été ” gravement altérés ” par les activités humaines. Il y a eu une augmentation de 300% de la production agricole depuis 1970, pourtant 11% de la population mondiale est sous-alimentée et environ 860 millions de personnes sont confrontées à l’insécurité alimentaire en Afrique et en Asie seulement. Environ un tiers de la surface terrestre mondiale et 75 % des ressources en eau douce sont consacrées à la production végétale ou animale. De 1980 à 2000, 100 millions d’hectares de forêt tropicale ont été perdus, principalement à cause de l’élevage du bétail en Amérique latine (environ 42 millions d’hectares) et des plantations en Asie du Sud-Est (environ 7,5 millions d’hectares, dont 80% pour l’huile de palme, utilisée principalement pour l’alimentation, les cosmétiques, les produits de nettoyage et les combustibles). 23 % des terres ont vu leur productivité diminuer en raison de la dégradation des terres, ce qui pourrait être atténué si l’on adoptait davantage des pratiques agricoles agroécologiques et restauratrices. Pendant ce temps, 75% des types de cultures vivrières dans le monde dépendent de la pollinisation animale. Le risque: la perte d’ environ 235 à 577 milliards de dollars US par an de la production mondiale de cultures. Comment réorienter le financement pour une agriculture intelligente? D’après le rapport de l’IPBES, en 2015, environ 100 milliards de dollars d’aide financière dans les pays de l’OCDE sont allés à l’agriculture qui est selon ces experts potentiellement nuisible pour l’environnement. D’après les auteurs du rapport,  près d’un tiers de la superficie forestière mondiale a été perdu par rapport aux niveaux préindustriels.  Environ 25 % des émissions de gaz à effet de serre sont dues au défrichement, à la production végétale et à la fertilisation, les aliments d’origine animale contribuant pour 75 % à ce chiffre.  5,6 gigatonnes d’émissions de CO2 sont séquestrées dans les écosystèmes marins et terrestres chaque année, ce qui équivaut à 60 % des émissions mondiales de combustibles fossiles. Paradoxalement, les petites exploitations contribuent au maintien d’une riche biodiversité, tout en contribuant aussi davantage, par hectare, à la production agricole et à l’approvisionnement alimentaire mondial comparées aux grandes exploitations : +/-30 % : la production végétale mondiale et l’approvisionnement alimentaire mondial sont assurés par de petites exploitations agricoles (<2...

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AFDB: Africa needs to accelerate private sector investment in infrastructure
Juil22

AFDB: Africa needs to accelerate private sector investment in infrastructure

AFDB: Africa needs to accelerate private sector investment in infrastructure By Houmi Ahamed-Mikidache   The Kenyan Urgent call President Uhuru Kenyatta has made an urgent call for developing and funding bankable infrastructure projects to drive Africa’s growth agenda during the Africa50 General shareholders Meeting held in Nairobi, Kenya. President Kenyatta said support for bankable projects in energy, transport, ICT, water and sanitation provide unprecedented opportunities for private sector participation. “The private sector must step up and help us close the infrastructure gap on the African continent. Public funding is limited, and there are competing priorities,” he said. Kenyatta announced Kenya would double its current shareholding investment in Africa50 to US$ 100 million. “We must have the confidence to trust and invest in our own infrastructure. Let us grow our partnership and make Africa50 a success.” ” A financing gap of US$ $68 – 108 billion” According to statistics provided by the African Development Bank (www.AfDB.org) the continent’s infrastructure funding requirements stand at close to US$ 170 billion a year, leaving a financing gap of US$ $68 – 108 billion. African Development Bank President and Chairman of Africa50, Akinwumi Adesina, said, “We need to act with speed and urgency. Our people expect nothing else.” He emphasized the importance of tackling factors that inhibit private sector infrastructure investments, including high costs of financing, weak regulations,  lack of cost reflective tariffs, low profitability, and weak regulatory frameworks for public-private partnerships. Private sector infrastructure financing in Africa remains low, averaging US$ 6 billion per year. In 2016, the figure dipped to US$ 2.6 billion. Adesina said Africa requires new models of financing infrastructure. “We must work smart to attract greater levels of investment financing for infrastructure development in Africa. Globally, there is approximately a US$ 120 trillion pool of savings and private equity. Africa must creatively attract some of this into the continent,” he said. Africa50 In response to Africa’s infrastructure finance deficit, the African Development Bank has launched the Africa Investment Forum (AIF) set to take place in South Africa in November 2018. The transaction-based forum is expected to be a gathering of global pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and institutional investors, and key private sector players. Adesina commended President Kenyatta for the country’s bold commitment to and investments in infrastructure development over the last 5 years. Infrastructure accounts for 77% of the Bank’s Kenya portfolio. “Mr. President, you were one of the first African leaders to support the creation of Africa50, which I am honored to chair,” said Adesina. “The African Development Bank, of which I am President, helped create Africa50 because we believe new institutional models are needed to close Africa’s...

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Africa-Environment: “we have to be very strong” Pacome Moubelet Boubeya (AMCEN)
Jan27

Africa-Environment: “we have to be very strong” Pacome Moubelet Boubeya (AMCEN)

Africa-Environment: “we have to be very strong” Pacome Moubelet Boubeya (AMCEN) On the sidelne of  the  3rd United Nations Environment Assembly held at the end of last year,  Era Environnement was part of a press conference held by  the minister of Forestry and Environment of Gabon, Pacome Moubelet Boubeya, who  is also the  president of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment ( AMCEN).  Mr Pacome Moubelet Boubeya gave his view on the significant role that  (AMCEN) plays on the continent and in the world. Interview by Wandile Kalippa in Kenya Era Environnement: Do you think Africa is ready to walk the talk on pollution, in view of the contrasting realities of ecosystem pollution by oil companies in Central Africa and Nigeria, and West Africa particularly, Nigeria and Gabon to be exact? Pacome Moubelet Boubeya: We have a big challenge. We have a challenge of developing our countries, of financing that development, of creating jobs and wealth to our countries, but we have a greater challenge even that of making sure that in the development strategies that we are taking we are not going to be destroying our own countries because of the exploitation of oil for instance, so, we have to be very aware of that and we have to adapt our development ambitions to what the reality is going to be tomorrow. If we do not do so now that the West is making and taking every effort for them to align with what they believe tomorrow is going to be. If we do not do anything today, it means that tomorrow we will be once again twenty of fifty years late, if we can compare with the West. So, we have a challenge. The challenge is to as I was saying to create wealth, give jobs to our people in the case of Nigeria and in the case of Gabon as well, you see that our population is very young and if we foresee the increase in population, let us say in Nigeria we can see that within the next twenty – twenty five, fifty years the population of Nigeria is going to increase by something like twenty five or thirty five percent, and we need to adapt our environment , global environment with the increase of population that we are going to have to make sure that we have the means and wealth to take care of these people as well. But maintaining what we have the most permanent in our countries which is our earth, our environment and we have to do whatever we have to, to protect, it means what? It means we have to...

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Bénin- Erosion côtière : La population en alerte face aux promesses
Août06

Bénin- Erosion côtière : La population en alerte face aux promesses

Bénin- Erosion côtière :La  population en alerte face aux promesses   Le Bénin, un des 38 pays côtiers d’Afrique fait face à l’érosion côtière due aux activités naturelles et humaines. Les changements climatiques accentuent ce phénomène naturel. Principales victimes : les populations riveraines.  Reportage. Par Hippolyte AGOSSOU 06-08-2017   Consternation L’érosion côtière, résultat d’activités humaines et naturelles, accentuée par les dérèglements climatiques. La hausse de la température se fait sentir particulièrement dans les zones côtières d’Afrique, par, entre autres, l’élévation du niveau de la mer. Le quartier Jack de Cotonou , dans la capitale économique du Bénin, n’est pas épargné. Les habitants de ce quartier  sont inquiets. « Depuis 2001, les politiques, à la veille d’élections, nous promettent d’entreprendre des projets de grande envergure, mais finalement lorsqu’ils arrivent au pouvoir, il n’y aucun résultat, » explique, Rachel, une habitante du quartier. Rachel et ses voisins vivent quotidiennement sous la menace des vagues. Le niveau de la mer monte entraînant des dégâts et la peur est de plus en plus présente surtout la nuit. La population a en effet peur d’être envahie par les vagues.  Le jour est source d’espoir. Difficile tout de même de garder son calme. « Combien de temps cette situation va-t-elle encore durer ? », s’interroge Awali, un étudiant du quartier. Et de poursuivre : « Depuis que je suis en seconde, des gens viennent recenser nos familles : il y a peine deux semaines, ils sont passés pour savoir ce que nous avons perdu et presque tous les jours des mesures de la plage sont effectuées près de notre domicile, mais au bout du rouleau rien n’avance, » conclut-il avec désolation. Les drames Suite aux marées d’avril 2016, le gouvernement de Patrice TALON  s’est engagé à mobiliser des ressources pour la protection et la valorisation des zones côtières. Mais le quartier Jack est toujours en attente. Principal obstacle : les formalités administratives. Il existerait un problème de montage de dossier de passation des marchés au sein des Directions techniques du Ministère du cadre de vie. Mais cette information n’est pas confirmée par les autorités. « Les appels offres sont lancés : les entreprises soumissionnaires sont attendues,» affirme récemment Adolphe Tohoundjo, Directeur de l’aménagement des berges et des côtes. « Mon jeune frère a été emporté l’année dernière par les vagues, » explique Paul, un étudiant, vivant dans le quartier. Sa famille est traumatisée et demande de l’aide parce que les vagues sont de plus en plus violentes. «  Nombreuses maisons ont été englouties par la mer et certaines écoles publiques du quartier vont bientôt disparaître : Il faut que le Gouvernement réagisse ! », exhorte le père de Paul, les larmes aux yeux. Des faits prouvés par la science L’érosion côtière  devrait se poursuivre...

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COP 23- Africa- Pacific : The Green Climate Fund in figures
Juil27

COP 23- Africa- Pacific : The Green Climate Fund in figures

COP 23- Africa- Pacific : The Green Climate Fund in figures A few years later after its operationalization, the Green Climate  Fund shows through figures how it is targeting Africa and the Pacific. By Houmi Ahamed-Mikidache 07-27- 2017 In Africa The Green Climate Fund ( GCF) of the United Nations has provided USD 700,000 to the Ministry of Natural Resources of Rwanda, a GCF direct access Accredited Entity, to assist the development of projects under the Fund’s Project Preparation Facility ( PPF), according to a press release from the GCF. The Project Preparation Facility (PPF) supports project and programme up to 1,5 million for each request. It can be provided through grants and repayable grants. In Africa, the Green Climate Fund has also disbursed USD 120,000 to Mauritania for activities through its readiness programme. This readiness programme provides developing countries resources to enhance country ownership and access to climate finance. In the Pacific GCF also has provided USD 130,000 in Readiness assistance, the second part of a USD 300,000 grant, to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), an organization governed by 26 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that coordinates the design and implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects across the Pacific. Improvements Through a partnership with United Nations Environment, over USD 1.4 million have been disbursed to help boost the capacities for climate programmes in Egypt, Ghana, Jordan, Maldives, Nepal and Tonga, explained a the GCF press release.To date, the Green Climate Fund has disbursed more than USD 9 million for Readiness activities in developing countries across all regions. According to the Green Climate Fund guidelines, National Designated Entities may request readiness and preparatory support from the Fund related to Gender training and capacity. They may also obtain gender training and capacity building, through partnerships with organizations such as bilateral, multilateral and international organizations, as well as NGOs. Among funding activities, the Fund will also support knowledge exchange activities on gender and climate finance. Within the green climate fund, there is a three year action plan dedicated to gender which allows the fund to implement its gender policy.    ...

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