Tanzania: Communities are fighting for their rights
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Tanzania: Communities are fighting for their rights

Tanzania: Communities are fighting for their rights   By Deodatus Mfugale Issues surrounding disputes over land ownership  are many in Tanzania and in Africa generally. From 2000 to 2010, several violent conflicts in various parts of Tanzania occurred between agribusiness investors and communities. The conflict thus involved three parties, the government, the investor and the local community. The villagers found that the government had colluded with the investor to deny them the right to own land. “The government had given us a raw deal. It was bad enough to sell the farm to the investor when people in the village needed that land. Giving the investor additional land made our situation worse,” said Alex Kyando, a resident of Kapunga village. In 2006 when the Tanzania government decided to privatize the Kapunga Rice Farm located in Mbeya Region ( Southern Highlands) to Export Trading Company, local communities were very disappointed and responded in a violent manner. In Babati District of Manyara Region, communities set on fire Tanzanian investor of Asian origin’s houses, stores, machinery, tractors. His relatives were also killed. The bloody incident was a climax of a long-standing conflict between the two parties: local communities alleging that the investor had unlawfully taken their land and they wanted it back. But the land was sold to the investor for a 100 years lease agreement. The local community originally offered the land to the government to create a state farm. But   the government had failed to manage it. Government Now things are changing and the demand by communities to uphold the right to own land is paying off.  In 2015,  the government declared that it would give back to the community the 1, 875 hectares of land that were sold to the investor of Kapunga Rice Farm which were over and above the original size of the farm. The government declaration became effective last year when the Minister responsible for lands announced that the parcel of land in question had been handed over to Mbarali District Council. “We have revoked the title deed for the land that was not originally part of Kapunga Rice Farm when it was sold to Export Trading Company. The Mbarali District Council will survey the land and give it back to the villagers,” said William Lukuvi, Minister for Lands. Arguments Until January this year, the survey had been completed and the land handed over to Kapunga Village Government for allocation to community members. Although there are complaints from some individuals that the allocation was not done fairly, most of the community members are happy with the government’s decision and the subsequent actions by the district council...

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Sudan : Integrating Climate Change into Societies
Mar17

Sudan : Integrating Climate Change into Societies

By Houmi Ahamed Mikidache Following the Paris Agreement adopted last December, eight countries in Eastern Africa have brought together their strategies to fight Climate Change. Sudan is one of them. Recently, eight countries in Eastern Africa, members of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), have identified and prioritized their major climate challenges, opportunities and strategic areas of interventions. These countries are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. To quote the Director of the Special Initiatives Division of the African Climate Policy Center at UNECA, Dr Fatima Denton, speaking in an AMCEN* meeting during the COP 21,  “  Climate change does offer several opportunities to walk confidently towards an industrial development pathway that will create jobs for the rural poor and reinvigorate trade between urban and rural populations.” Sudan’s strategy Sudan is located in North-East Africa and its land was last measured at 2,376 million sq km in 2014, according to the World Bank. “We have the land in Sudan. We can work in forestry, forest plantations. We can work on carbon sequestration, by planting trees. We can work on renewable, solar energy, wind energy, hydroenergy and so on and so forth,” said Dr Hassan Abdelgadir Hilal, Minister of Environment, Forestry and physical development of Sudan, in parallele of the INDCs* Forum in Rabat (Morocco) on october last year. As mentioned in its national action plan, namely Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), Sudan is “currently implementing some key urgent and immediate adaptation initiatives in six of its eighteen vulnerable states, identified in the National Adaptations Programmes of Actions (NAPA)*. Sudan wants to reach 20% of renewable share in the power mix by 2030. According to the Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ) , published in 2014, Sudan and South Sudan are major oil producers. With the split, they are now ranked as the fourth-largest non-OPEC African oil producer. As oil prices drop, African oil producing countries have to adapt, noted oil strategists, in an Oil week meeting in Cape Town ( South Africa) in 2015.  Population in Sudan is estimated 41, 029 476 million in 2016. Energy poverty rates 65% . To achieve energy efficiency, it aims to raise its forest area to 25% by 2030. It needs also to implement its adaptation initiatives based on its National Adaptations Programmes of Actions, notes experts in the Sudan’s national action plan . The main development sectors are water, agriculture and health. A total of 12.88 USD billions has been requested by the country to the international community. It includes 1.2 billions USD$ for adaptation and 11.68 billions for mitigation. “Most of the African countries completed their national action...

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